Hypertensive Retinopathy

What is hypertensive retinopathy?

Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina(which is the light sensitive tissue at the back of the eye) caused by high blood pressure.

What are the causes of hypertensive retinopathy?

High blood pressure can cause damage to blood vessels in the eyes. The higher the blood pressure and the longer it has been high, the more severe the damage is likely to be. Your doctor can see narrowing of blood vessels, and excess fluid oozing from blood vessels, with an instrument called an ophthalmoscope. The degree of retina damage (retinopathy) is graded on a scale of I to IV. At grade I, no symptoms may be present. Grade IV hypertensive retinopathy includes swelling of the visual center of the retina (macula). Such swelling can cause decreased vision.

What are the symptoms of hypertensive retinopathy ?

  • Headache
  • Visual disturbances

How could hypertensive retinopathy be treated ?

Control of high blood pressure (hypertension) is the only treatment for hypertensive retinopathy.

What are the prognosis?

Patients with grade IV (severe hypertensive retinopathy) frequently also have heart and kidney complications of high blood pressure. The retina will generally recover well if the blood pressure is controlled, but some patients with grade IV hypertensive retinopathy will have permanent damage resulting in vision problems.

When to contact a doctor?

Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if you have high blood pressure and vision changes or headaches occur.

What are the prevention of hypertensive retinopathy?

Control of high blood pressure prevents changes in the blood vessels of the eye.